Cahiers

1999 / n° 10

Fouriérisme, Révolution, République. Autour de 1848

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Présentation

Thomas Bouchet
Introduction
La singulière actualité du fouriérisme sous la Deuxième République
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Etudes

Jonathan Beecher
Old World and New World : the Revolution of 1848 seen by Victor Considerant

In a book published immediately after the presidential election of December under the title Le Socialisme devant le vieux monde ou le vivant devant les morts, Victor Considerant tried to put the events of the year 1848 in broad perspective. Using an elaborate rhetorical figure evoking the decomposition of the political world, he defined socialism as a movement full of vitality and strength, as a "living" movement whose vision and "faith" were consistent with the direction of history.

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Jean-Marcel Jeanneney
Fourier’s Followers and the Revolution of 1848

The fourierists often take part in the debates of the year 1848. La Démocratie pacifique, their newspaper, accounts for their immediate adherence to Republic and their desire of economic and social reform. They support a right to work, against Proudhon and Thiers. But their plans come to nothing. The principle of a right to work is rejected in september 1848.

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François Fourn
Icarians and Phalansterians : converging visions from 1845 to 1849

From 1845 to 1849 there was lively debate between the Icarian communists and the Fourierists wwhen it came to their being distinguished by public opinion. They manage to tolerate each other and even to cooperate when facing common adversaries. A possible way of approaching the utopias in France around the Revolution of 1848 is to study the perceptions these two socialist currents had of each other. The utopias were certainly not products of folly doomed to failure from the outset, but rather attempts to invent new forms of political action.

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Vincent Robert
A Geography of Utopia : Icarians and Phalansterians just before 1848

How were the ideas of utopian socialism spread in the French society, and what was their actual influence just before 1848 ? In order to avoid impressionistic and subjective explanations, twho sources have been analysed : subscriptions to Cabet’s Le Populaire, at departmental and local levels ; subscriptions to the phalansterian pension (summer 1846). A geography of utopia cand therefore be sketched, with place ignoring it and spheres of influence. With a few exceptions (Seine, for instance), the fortresses of icarian communism and those of fourierism are not the same. The latter especially seduced the middle classes and the intellectuals ; the former spread in the working classes, compagnons and factory workers.

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Michel Vernus
The 1848 Revolution in Salins and Arbois : the Presence of Fourierism in the Democratic Movement

On a local level, it is difficult to mesure accurately the influence of the Fourierist current in the syncretism of the 1848 democratic movement. The Fourierist current can however be perceived in the Jura vineyards, in Salins - Considerant’s homee town - and in Arbois where there had been a republican network since 1830. The particular consistency of this militant strain within the democratic movement in fusion is manifested by the existence of local newspapers with Fourierist leanings, and by the actions of influential leader like the writer Max Buchon, the printer Javel and the lawyer Gagneur.

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Denis Burckel
The Revolution of 1848, according to Fourierist Social Science

Fourierism, seen as a physiology of the social body in relation with the scientific theories of the beginning of the 19th century, can be seen as a School collecting and spreading knowledge, and - in fact - not as a party seeking for power. Therefore, the Revolution of 1848 and the Second Republic are subjects of scientific analyse ; they belong to the natural history of manhood and universe. Further, the fourierists challenge the concepts of progress and of utopia.

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Michèle Riot-Sarcey
About Victor Considerant in 1848. Victor Considerant and the Quest for a "Political Truth" through "Utopia" Attained

The February Revolution articulated social demands and inaugurated a new era for those disinherited. According to Jospeh Rey the proletarian class had the capacity to seize the political "thought power" which at that time was inseparable from the social question. A great number of those who had participated in the Revolution of 1848 were questioning the Republic’s nature and Considerant was one of them. Embracing both a critical view of the usurpation of property-ownership and the will to reorganise the "commune" in an associative form, Fourier’s disciple constantly draws the attention of his contemporaries to the necessary completion, no longer in words but in action, of the revolution. In this sens the Fourierist utopia of 1848, far from being a non-place, develops in close relation with the social demands of the moment.

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Illustrations

Bertall
La Foire aux Idées
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Honoré Daumier
Victor Considerant
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Bertall
Proudhon et Considerant par Bertall
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Cham
Considerant et Thiers par Cham
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Pétrus Deboudachier
Profession de foi de Pétrus Deboudachier
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Notes de lecture

Louis Ucciani
MASSARI Robert, GARZIA Aldo (dir.) : "Che Guevara" (1998)
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Louis Ucciani
DEBOUT Simone : Griffe au nez (1999)
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Laurence Bouchet
DEBOUT Simone : L’Utopie de Charles Fourier (1998)
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Jean-Claude Dubos
DESMARS Bernard : "De l’harmonie universelle aux mouvements de paix : fouriérisme et pacifisme au XIXe siècle" (1999)
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Bruno Verlet
MAILLARD Alain : La Communauté des Egaux. Le communisme néo-babouviste dans la France des années 1840 (1999)
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Louis Ucciani
PROUDHON Pierre-Joseph : Ecrits linguistiques et philologiques (1999)
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Bernard Desmars
RIOT-SARCEY Michèle : Le réel de l’utopie. Essai sur le politique au XIXe siècle (1998)
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Louis Ucciani
TARDE Gabriel : Fragments d’histoire future (1998)
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Jean-Claude Dubos
TOUCHARD Jean : Aux origines du catholicisme social : Louis Rousseau (1787-1856) (1998)
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Mirella Larizza
VIGOUREUX Clarisse : Paroles de providence (1993)
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Actualités

Publications de nos adhérents
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Jean-Claude Dubos
Nouvelles brèves
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